40 Inventive Principles in Latin Phrases
|“…The interpretation of contradiction table parameters is not uniform and discussion helps. Same for use and interpretation of the inventive principles. Everyone has a different background and experience which enriches the idea pool.”
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By Gennady Retseptor
Were people who lived in Antiquity and Medieval times familiar with the 40 inventive principles of TRIZ? Having studied famous Latin phrases, quotes and proverbs, the answer appears to be positive. The 40 inventive principles, discovered by Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues as patterns for technical problems solution, also represent fundamental and universal principles of human wisdom and creativity.5
Principle 1. Segmentation (Division)
A. Divide object or system into independent parts.
- Divide et impera â€“ “Divide and govern (rule, conquer)” (Philip II of Macedonia). Roman maxim of ruling subdued nations.
- Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres â€“ “All of Gaul is divided into three parts” (Caesar).
- Facilius per partes in cognitionem totius adducimur â€“ “We are more easily led part by part to an understanding of the whole” (Seneca).
B. Make object or system sectional. Make object or system easy to assemble-disassemble.
C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation.
- De minimis â€“ With respect to trifles.
D. Transition to micro-level.
- Natura in minima maxima â€“ Nature is the greatest in the smallest things.
Principle 2. Taking Out (Separation, Isolation)
A. Separate an interfering (weak) part or property from object or system.
- Nulla regula sine exceptione â€“ No rule without exception.
- Pars pro toto â€“ Part instead of whole. Sacrifice part in order to save whole.
- Intra muros â€“ Within the walls. Not public.
- Amoto quaeramus seria ludo â€“ “Joking aside, let us turn to serious matters” (Horace).
- Absente reo or In absentia â€“ In the absence. A trial carried out in the absence of the accused.
- Interfice errorem, diligere errantem â€“ “Kill the sin, love the sinner” (St. Augustine).
B. Single out the only necessary (and sufficient) part or property of object or system.
- Cura nihil aliud nisi ut valeas â€“ “Take care of nothing except that you do well” (Cicero).
- Dictum sapienti sat est â€“ “A word to the wise is sufficient” (Terence).
- Conditio sine qua non â€“ Condition without which not. Indispensable condition.
Principle 3. Local Quality (Non-uniformity)
A. Change object or system structure from uniform to non-uniform. Use object or system non-uniformity.
B. Change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform. Use external non-uniformity.
C. Make each part of object or system function in conditions most suitable for its operation.
D. Make each part of object or system fulfill a different and/or complementary useful function.
- Ad hoc â€“ Toward this. For the special purpose. Something created or improvised especially for a particular occasion.
- Punctum saliens â€“ The outstanding point. The essential or most notable point.
- Rem acu tetigisti â€“ “You have hit the nail on the head” (Plautus). You have touched the matter with a needle. You have described it accurately.
- Multum in parvo â€“ Much in little.
- Non multa, sed multum â€“ “Not many things, but much” (Quintilian). Not quantity, but quality.
- E pluribus unum â€“ “From many, one” (Virgil).
- Primus inter pares â€“ “First among equals” (A title of the Roman emperors).
- Multi sunt vocati, pauci vero electi â€“ Many are called, but a few chosen (Vulgate Bible).
- Non licet omnibus adire Corinthum â€“ “Not everybody is granted privilege of going to Corinth” (Horace).
- Cui bono? â€“ “Whom does it benefit?” A maxim of Cassius, quoted by Cicero. Used in the detection of crime.
- Cui prodest scelus, is fecit â€“ “The crime was committed by somebody who benefits from it” (Seneca).
- Suum quique â€“ To each what he deserves.
- Reddite ergo quae sunt Caesaris, Caesari â€“ “Give Caesar what’s Caesar’s” (Vulgate Bible).
- Vos vestros servate, meos mihi linquite mores â€“ “You keep to your own ways and leave mine to me” (Petrarch).
- De gustibus non est disputandum â€“ Matters of taste are not to be disputed.
- Trahit sua quemque voluptas â€“ Each man is led by his own taste.
- Sua cuique voluptas â€“ Everyone has his own pleasures.
- Quot capita, tot sententiae or Quot homines, tot sententiae â€“ “As many opinions as people” (Terence).
- Libenter homines id quod volunt credunt â€“ “People gladly believe what they want to” (Caesar).
- Nullus est instar domus â€“ There is no place like home.
- Magna res est vocis et silentii temperamentum â€“ “The great thing is to know when to speak and when to keep quiet” (Seneca).
- Sutor, ne ultra crepidam â€“ “Cobbler, no further than the sandal” (Apelles). It is said that Greek painter Apelles was one day painting a warrior but he was uncertain on how to render his sandals (crepida). He asked the advice of a cobbler (sutor), but after a time the cobbler started offering advice on other parts of the painting and was rebuked by Apelles with this phrase.
Principle 3 Inverted. Global Quality (Uniformity)
- Unus multorum â€“ One of many. An average person.
- Amicus omnibus, amicus nemini or Multus amicus, nullius amicus â€“ A friend to all is a friend to none.
Principle 4. Asymmetry (Symmetry Change)
A. Change the shape of object or system from symmetrical to asymmetrical.
B. Change the shape or properties of object or system to suit external asymmetries.
C. If object or system is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry.
- Audaces fortuna iuvat â€“ “Fortune favors the brave” (Virgil).
- Fortes fortuna iuvat â€“ “Fortune favors the strong” (Terence).
- Vae victis! â€“ “Woe to the conquered!” (Livy).
- In dubio pro reo â€“ “When in doubt, in favour of the accused” (Corpus Juris Civilis).
- Satius est impunitum relinqui facinus nocentis, quam innocentem damnari â€“ “It is better that a crime is left unpunished than that an innocent man is punished” (Corpus Juris Civilis).
- Inter dominum et servum nulla amicitia â€“ No friendship between master and servant.
- Quod licet Jovi, non licet bovi â€“ “All that is allowed to Jupiter is not allowed to an ox” (Terence). What the privileged can do, the rest cannot.
- Quod medicina aliis, aliis est acre venenum â€“ One person’s medicine is another’s foul poison.
- In alio pediculum, in te ricinum non vides â€“ “You see a louse on someone else, but not a tick on yourself” (Petronius).
- Qui dedit benificium taceat; narret qui accepit â€“ “Let him who has done a good deed be silent; let him who has received it tell it” (Seneca).
Principle 4 Inverted. Symmetry (Reciprocity)
- Do ut des â€“ Give to obtain. Principle of reciprocity.
- Quid pro quo â€“ A thing for a thing. A reciprocal exchange, something given in compensation.
- Qui vult dare parva non debet magna rogare â€“ He who wishes to give little shouldn’t ask for much.
- Manus manum lavat â€“ “One hand washes the other” (Petronius). A favor for a favor.
- Serva me, servabo te â€“ “Save me and I will save you” (Petronius).
- Lex talionis â€“ Law of retaliation. Retributive justice. An eye for an eye.
- Audi et alteram partem â€“ Hear the other side.
- Audiatur et altera pars â€“ Hear both sides.
Principle 5. Merging (Combining, Integration, Harmony)
A. Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects or systems; assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations.
- Adde parvum parvo manus acervus erit â€“ “Add little to little and there will be a big pile” (Ovid).
- Concordia res parvae crescent â€“ Work together to accomplish more.
- Coniunctis viribus â€“ With united powers.
- Viribus unitis â€“ By united efforts.
- Consensu omnium â€“ By general consent. By the agreement of all.
- Oculi plus vident quam oculus â€“ Several eyes see more than only one.
B. Make operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time.
- Pari passu â€“ With equal pace. Moving together, simultaneously.
C. Agglomerate objects or systems to bi- and poly-system.
- Concordia civium murus urbium â€“ Harmony of citizens is the wall of cities.
- Concordia salus â€“ Well-being through harmony.
- Ubi concordia, ibi victoria â€“ Where there is a harmony, there is a victory.
Principle 6. Universality (Multi-functionality)
A. Make a part of object or system perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts.
- Ab uno disce omnes â€“ “Learn all from one thing” (Virgil).
B. Use standardized features.
- Pecuniate obediunt omnia â€“ All things obey money.
- Nervos belli, pecuniam â€“ “The nerve of war, money” (Cicero).
- Nihil tam munitum quod non expugnari pecunia possit â€“ “No fort is so strong that it cannot be taken with money” (Cicero).
- Pecunia non olet â€“ “The money does not smell” (Vespasian). About the plan to tax public urinals.
Principle 6 Inverted. Non-universality
- Ne Jupiter quidem omnibus placet â€“ Not even Jupiter can please everyone.
- Nec scire fas est omnia â€“ We are not allowed to know all things.
- Non omnia possumus omnes â€“ “All of us cannot do everything” (Virgil).
Principle 7. Nesting
A. Place one object or system inside another; place each object, in turn, inside the other.
- Imperium in imperio â€“ An empire within an empire. A fifth column, a group of people within a nation’s territory who owe allegiance to some other leader.
- Ars est celare artem â€“ “It is art to conceal art” (Ovid).
- Obscurum per obscurius â€“ The obscure by means of the more obscure.
B. Make one part pass (dynamically) through a cavity in the other.
- Deux ex machina â€“ A god from a machine. Sudden, unexpected turnover. A contrived event that resolves a problem at the last moment.
Principle 8. Anti-Weight (Seeking Help from Higher Forces)
A. To compensate for the weight of object or system, merge it with other objects or systems that provide lift.
B. To compensate for the weight of object or system, make it interact with the environment (e.g., use buoyancy and other forces).
- Leve fit, quod bene fertur, onus â€“ “A burden which is borne well becomes light” (Ovid).
- Auxilio ab alto â€“ By help from on high.
- Deo adjuvante, non timendum â€“ With the help of God there is nothing to be afraid of.
- Deux vult â€“ “God wills it!” (A motto of the Crusades).
- Nil sine numini â€“ Nothing without Providence.
- Annuit coeptis â€“ God has favored us.
- Cito fit quod dii volunt â€“ “What the Gods want happens soon” (Petronius).
- Nam homo proponit, sed Deus disponit â€“ “Man foretells, God decides” (Thomas A.Kempis).
- Fortuna suffragante â€“ With fortune on our side.
- Avito viret honore â€“ He flourishes on the honors of his ancestors.
- Experto credite â€“ “Trust the expert” (Virgil). Believe one who speaks from experience.
- Ipse dixit â€“ He, himself, has spoken. Used with reference to the arbitrary assertions of authorities.
- Iurare in verba magistri â€“ Swear by teacher’s words.
- Laudari a viro laudato â€“ To be praised by a man that is praised (i.e., by an eminent man).
Principle 9. Preliminary Anti-Action (Preventive Measures)
A. If it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects, this action should be replaced with anti-actions to control harmful effects.
B. Create beforehand stresses in object or system that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on.
- Praemonitus, praemunitus â€“ Forewarned, forearmed.
- Praevenire melius est quam praeveniri â€“ It is better to precede than to be preceded.
- Ad utrumque paratus â€“ Prepared to the worst.
- In omnia paratus â€“ Prepared for all things.
- Semper paratus â€“ Always prepared.
- Animis opibusque parati â€“ Prepared in minds and resources.
- Non semper erit aestas â€“ It will not always be summer. Be prepared for hard times.
- Qui non est hodie cras minus aptus erit â€“ “He who is not prepared today will be less so tomorrow” (Ovid).
- Adversus incendia excubias nocturnas vigilesque commentus est â€“ Against the danger of fires, he (Augustus) conceived the idea of night guards and watchmen.
- Principiis obsta â€“ Resist the beginnings. Undesirable trends should be nipped in the bud.
- Venienti occurrite morbo â€“ Meet the coming disease. Take disease in time, prevention is better than cure.
Principle 10. Preliminary Action
A. Perform, before it is needed, the required change of object or system (either fully or partially).
- Aspirat primo Fortuna labori â€“ “Fortune smiles upon our first effort” (Virgil).
- Dimidium facti qui coepit habet. Sapere aude, incipe! â€“ “He who has begun has half done. Dare to be wise; begin!” (Horace).
- Omne initium est difficile â€“ Every beginning is difficult.
- Primordia cuncta pavida sunt â€“ All beginnings are frightful.
- Omnium rerum principia parva sunt â€“ “Everything has a small beginning” (Cicero).
- Ex nihilo nihil fit â€“ “Nothing comes from nothing” (Lucretius). The Conservation Law in philosophy and modern science.
- Bene diagnoscitur, bene curatur â€“ Something that is well diagnosed can be cured well.
- Ut sementem feceris ita metes â€“ “As you sow so will you reap” (Cicero).
- Prior tempore, prior iure â€“ First in time, first by right. First come, first served.
B. Pre-arrange objects or systems such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery.
Principle 10 Inverted. Afterward Action
- Exitus acta probat â€“ “The result justifies the deed” (Ovid).
- Finis coronat opus â€“ “The end crowns the work” (Ovid).
- Ex post facto â€“ From after the fact (e.g., a law with retroactive effect).
- Post hoc, ergo propter hoc â€“ “After this, therefore because of this” (A logical fallacy).
- Mali principii malus finis â€“ The bad end of a bad beginning.
- Male parta male dilabuntur â€“ “What has been wrongly gained is wrongly lost” (Cicero). Ill-gotten gains seldom prosper.
- Post factum nulum consilium â€“ After the deed, no advice is helpful.
- Serum est post facta consilium â€“ The advice after the deed is too late.
- Nemo me impune lacessit â€“ “No one provokes me with impunity” (Motto of the Kings of Scotland).
- Culpam poena premit comes â€“ “Punishment follows close behind crime as its companion” (Horace).
- Pede poena claudo â€“ “Punishment comes limping” (Horace). Retribution comes slowly, but surely.
- Nulla avarita sine poena est â€“ “There is no avarice without penalty” (Seneca).
Principle 11. Beforehand Cushioning (Caution, Alertness)
A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of object or system.
- Abundans cautela non nocet â€“ Abundant caution does no harm.
- Primum non nocere â€“ “First, do no harm” (Oath of Hippocrates).
- Quidquid agis, prudenter agas et respice finem â€“ Whatever you do, do cautiously, and look to the end.
- Cave quid dicis, quando, et cui â€“ Beware what you say, when and to whom.
- Fide, sed qui, vide â€“ Trust but take care whom.
- Ne fronti crede â€“ Do not trust to appearances.
- Mus uni non fidit antro â€“ “A mouse does not rely on just one hole” (Plautus).
- In cauda venenum â€“ In the tail (of the scorpion) is the poison. Look beyond the obvious in considering possible danger.
- Lates anguis in herba â€“ A snake is hidden in the grass” (Virgil). Beware of a treacherous person, a false friend, a hidden danger or an unknown risk.
- Struit insidias lacrimis cum femina plorat â€“ “When a woman weeps, she is setting traps with her tears” (Dionysius Cato).
- Caveat emptor â€“ Let the buyer beware.
- Caveat venditor â€“ Let the seller beware.
- Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodies? â€“ “But who will guard the guardians themselves?” (Juvenal).
Principle 12. Equipotentiality (Equality)
A. In a potential field, limit position changes (e.g., change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects in a gravity field).
- Omnia mors aequat â€“ Death levels all distinctions.
- Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas regumque turres â€“ “Pale Death, with impartial foot, knocks at the cottages of the poor and the palaces of kings” (Horace).
- Omnes una manet nox â€“ “The same night awaits us all” (Horace).
- Ignorantia legis neminem excusat â€“ Ignorance of the law excuses no one.
- Iustitia omnibus â€“ Justice for all.
- Patria est communis omnium parens â€“ “The fatherland is the common parent of us all” (Cicero).
- Sol lucet omnibus â€“ “The sun shines for everyone” (Petronius).
- Sub sole nihil novi est â€“ “There is nothing new under the sun” (Vulgate Bible).
- Nemo propheta in patria sua â€“ “No one is considered a prophet in his homeland” (Vulgate Bible).
- Nullum est iam dictum quod non dictum sit prius â€“ “Nothing is said that hasn’t been said before” (Terence).
- Nullum saeculum magnis ingeniis clausum est â€“ “No generation is closed to great talents” (Seneca).
- Non mihi, non tibi, sed nobis â€“ Not for you, not for me, but for us. The foundation of a good relationship.
Principle 13. Inversion (The Other Way Round)
A. Invert the action(s) used to solve the problem (e.g., instead of cooling an object, heat it).
B. Make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed, and fixed parts movable.
C. Turn object or system “upside down.”
- Exceptio probat regulam â€“ The exception proves the rule.
- Aliena nobis, nostra plus aliis placent â€“ “Other people’s things are more pleasing to us, and ours to other people” (Publilius Syrus).
- Quid rides? Mutato nomine de te fabula narratur â€“ “What are you laughing at? Just change the name and the joke’s on you” (Horace).
- Certum est quia impossibile â€“ “It is certain because it is impossible” (Tertullian).
- Credo quia absurdum â€“ “I believe it because it is absurd” (Tertullian).
- Omnia iam fient fieri quae posse negabam â€“ “Everything which I said could not happen, will happen now” (Ovid).
- Homines, dum docent, discunt â€“ “People learn while they teach” (Seneca). Docendo discimus We learn by teaching.
- Fas est et ab hoste doceri â€“ “It’s proper to learn even from an enemy” (Ovid).
- Legum servi sumus ut liberi esse possimus â€“ “We are slaves of the law so that we may be able to be free” (Cicero).
- Cui peccare licet peccat minus â€“ “One who is allowed to sin, sins less” (Ovid).
- Dum excusare credis, accusas â€“ “When you believe you are excusing yourself, you are accusing yourself” (St. Jerome).
- Excusatio non petita, accusatio manifesta â€“ He who excuses himself, accuses himself.
- Magna civitas, magna solitudo â€“ A great city is a great solitude.
- Numquam se minus solum quam cum solus esset â€“ “You are never so little alone as when you are alone” (Cicero).
- Non ut edam vivo, sed ut vivam edo â€“ “I don’t live to eat, but I eat to live” (Quintilian).
- Non vestimentum virum ornat, sed vir vestimentum â€“ Not the raiment graces the man, but the man the raiment.
- O praeclarum custodem ovium lupum! â€“ “An excellent protector of sheep, the wolf!” (Cicero).
- Scio me nihil scire â€“ “I know that I know nothing” (Socrates). True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing. And in knowing that you know nothing, that makes you the smartest of all.
- Stultus puerque vera dicunt â€“ A foolish child speaks truth.
- Tacent, satis laudant â€“ “Their silence is enough praise” (Terence).
- Cum tacent, clamant â€“ “When they remain silent, they cry out” (Cicero). Their silence speaks louder than words.
- Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem â€“ “The only safety for the defeated is to relinquish all hope of safety” (Virgil).
- Video meliora proboque deteriora sequor â€“ “I see the better way and approve it, but I follow the worse way” (Ovid).
- Rerum concordia discors â€“ “The discordant harmony of things” (Horace).
- Reductio ad absurdum â€“ Reduction to absurdity. Proving the truth of a proposition by proving a falsity of all its alternatives. A technique of argument that proves the thesis by showing that its opposite is absurd or logically untenable. This is an oft-used method of proof in mathematics and philosophy.
- Armis Exposcere Pacem â€“ “They demanded peace by force of arms” (An inscription on medals).
- Solitudinem fecerunt, pacem appelunt â€“ “They made a desert and called it peace” (Tacitus).
- In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello â€“ In peace, like a wise man, he appropriately prepares for war.
- Si vis pacem, para bellum or Qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum â€“ “If you want peace, prepare for war” (Vegetius). Peace is least threatened, when the state is prepared for defense.
Principle 14. Spheroidality (Perfection, Excellence)
A. Instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces, or forms, use curvilinear ones; move from flat surfaces to spherical ones; from parts shaped as a cube (parallel-piped) to ball-shaped structures.
B. Use rollers, balls, spirals, domes.
C. Go from linear to rotary motion (or vise versa).
D. Use centrifugal forces.
- Circulus vitiosus â€“ A vicious circle. Circulus in probando A circle in the proof. The fallacy of using the conclusion as one of the premises.
- Ad unguem factus homo â€“ “A man polished to the nail” (Horace). A highly polished, accomplished man.
- Teres atque rotundus â€“ A man polished and complete.
Principle 14 Inverted. Imperfection
- Nemo sine vitio est â€“ “No one is born without fault” (Horace).
- Nemo mortalium omnibus boris sapit â€“ No man is wise at all time. The wisest may make mistakes.
- Cuiusvis hominis est errare â€“ “Every human can err” (Cicero).
- Nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit â€“ “There has never been great genius without a little madness mixed in” (Seneca).
- Interdum dormitat bonus Homerus â€“ “Sometimes even the good Homer slumbers” (Horace). Even the best of us makes mistakes.
Principle 15. Dynamics (Optimization)
A. Allow (or design) the characteristics of object, external environment, process or system to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition.
B. Divide object or system into parts capable of movement relative to each other.
C. If an object or system is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive.
D. Increase degree of free motion.
- Mutatis mutandis â€“ The necessary changes having been made.
- Tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur in illis â€“ “The times are changed, and we are changed with them” (Ovid).
- Variatio delectat â€“ “There’s nothing like change!” (Cicero).
- O tempora, O mores! â€“ “Oh, the times! Oh, the morals!” (Cicero).
- Aurea mediocritas â€“ “The golden mean” (Horace). An ethical goal; truth and goodness are generally to be found in the middle.
- Est modus in rebus â€“ “There is a middle course in all things” (Horace).
- In medio stat virtus â€“ “Virtue stands in the middle” (Horace). Virtue is in the moderate, not the extreme position.
- In medio tutissimus ibis â€“ “In the middle you will go the most safe” (Ovid). Moderation in all things.
- De duobus malis, minus est semper eligendum â€“ Of two evils, the lesser must always be chosen.
- Ex malis eligere minima â€“ Choose minimal of two evils.
- Feci quod potui, faciant meliora potentes â€“ I did what I could; who can – do it better.
- In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas â€“ “In necessary things unity, in doubtful things liberty, in all things charity” (St. Augustine).
- Malum consilium quod mutari non potest â€“ “It is a bad plan that cannot be changed” (Publilius Syrus).
- Non progrede est regrede â€“ Not to proceed is to recede. Not going forward is coming back.
- Qui non proficit, deficit â€“ One who does not advance, loses ground.
- Sedit qui timuit ne non succederet â€“ “He who feared he would not succeed sat still” (Horace). For fear of failure he did nothing.
Principle 15 Inverted. Static State
- Semper idem â€“ “Always the same thing” (Cicero).
- Quieta non movere â€“ Do not move settled things. Do not rock the boat.
- Si fractum non sit, noli id reficere â€“ If it isn’t broken, don’t fix it.
- In dubiis non est agendum â€“ In dubious cases, you should not act.
- Verba volant, scripta manent â€“ Words fly away, writings remain.
- Dulce est desipere in loco â€“ “It is sweet to relax at the proper time” (Horace).
Principle 16. Partial or Excessive Action
A. If 100 percent of object or system is hard to achieve using a given solution method then, by using ‘slightly less’ or ‘slightly more’ of the same method, the problem may be considerably easier to solve.
- Impossibilium nulla obligatio est â€“ “Nobody has any obligation to the impossible” (Corpus Iuris Civilis).
- Boni pastoris est tondere pecus, non deglubere â€“ “A good shepherd shears his sheep, he doesn’t flay them” (Tiberius). Don’t tax the populace excessively.
- Exigo ame non ut optimis par sim, sed ut malis melior â€“ “I require myself not to be equal to the best, but to be better than the bad” (Seneca).
- Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere fidus interpres â€“ “As a true translator you will take care not to translate word for word” (Horace).
- Cum grano salis â€“ “With a grain of salt” (Pliny the Elder). With some allowance or modification. Take something not literally, but with due consideration.
- Ne quid nimis â€“ “Not too much” (Terence). Nothing in excess.
Principle 16 Inverted. Extremism (All or Nothing)
- Per fas et nefas â€“ With right and wrong. By any means necessary.
- Nunc aut numquam â€“ Now or never.
- Aut Caesar aut nullus â€“ “Either Caesar or nobody” (Cesare Borgia). Either in first place or nowhere.
- Aut vincere aut mori â€“ Either conquer or die. Death or victory.
- Tertium non datur â€“ No third is given. Logical axiom that a claim is either true or false, with no third option.
- De mortuis nihil nisi bene â€“ “Of the dead, nothing but good” (Chilon). Say only good things about the dead.
- Nil actum reputa si quid superest agendum â€“ “Nothing has been done if anything is undone” (Lucan).
- Aut disce aut discede â€“ Either learn or leave.
- Fiat iustitia pereat mundus â€“ “Let justice be done, though the world should perish” (Ferdinand I).
- Fiat iustitia, ruat caelum â€“ Let justice be done, though the heavens fall.
- Lex malla, lex nulla â€“ “A bad law is no law” (St. Thomas Aquinas).
- Ubi ius incertum, ibi ius nullum â€“ Where the law is uncertain, there is no law.
- Meos tam suspicione quam crimine iudico carere oportere â€“ “I feel that members of my family should never be suspected of breaking the law” (Caesar).
- Quia suam uxorem etiam suspiciore vacare vellet â€“ “Caesar’s wife may not be suspected” (Plutarch)
- Nil actum reputa si quid superest agendum â€“ “Don’t consider that anything has been done if anything is left to be done” (Lucan).
Principle 17. Another Dimension or Scale
A. If object or system contains or moves in a straight line, consider use of dimensions or movement outside the line. Move object or system in two-dimensional space.
B. If object or system contains or moves in a plane, consider use of dimensions or movement outside the current plane. Move object or system in three-dimensional space.
C. Use a multi-story arrangement of objects or systems instead of a single-story arrangement.
- In virtute sunt multi ascensus â€“ “There are many degrees in excellence” (Cicero).
D. Tilt or re-orient object or system, lay it on its side. Look from another angle.
- Maior e longinquo reverentia â€“ “Viewed from a distance, everything is beautiful” (Tacitus).
- Sub specie aeternitatis â€“ “From eternity’s point of view” (Spinoza).
E. Use ‘another side’ of a given area. Look at reverse side of a medal.
- Nemo autem regere potest nisi qui et regi â€“ “Moreover, there is no one who can rule unless he can be ruled” (Seneca).
- Necesse est multos timeat quem multi timent â€“ “He must fear many, whom many fear” (Laberius referring to Caesar).
- Accipere quam facere praestat injuriam â€“ It is better to suffer an injustice than to do an injustice.
- Bono vinci satius est quam almo more iniuriam vincere â€“ “A good man would rather suffer defeat than defeat another by foul means” (Sallust).
- Si vis amaria, ama â€“ “If you want to be loved, love” (Seneca).
- Ut ameris, amabilis esto â€“ Be amiable, then you’ll be loved.
F. Use another scale.
- De minimis non curat praetor (rex, lex) â€“ The authority (king, law) does not care about trivial things.
- Aquila non captat muscas â€“ The eagle doesn’t capture flies. Don’t be concerned of the small things.
- Elephantum ex musca facis â€“ To make elephant from a fly.
- Parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus â€“ “Mountains will be in labour, and a ridiculous mouse will be born” (Horace). Much ado about nothing.
Principle 18. Vibration (Agitation)
A. Cause object or system to oscillate or vibrate.
B. Increase its frequency (even up to the ultrasonic).
C. Use object or system resonant frequency.
D. Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones.
E. Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations.
- Agita nate sumendum â€“ Shake before taking.
- Ante tubam trepidat â€“ To be agitated in front of war trumpet.
- Fluctuat nec mergitur â€“ It rocks but does not sink. It is tossed by the waves but it does not sink.
- Excitabat fluctus in simpulo â€“ “He was stirring up a storm in a spoon” (Cicero).
Principle 19. Periodic Action
A. Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions.
B. If an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude or frequency.
C. Use pauses between impulses to perform a different action
- Repetitio est mater studiorum â€“ Repetition is the mother of study.
- Per varios usus artem experientia fecit â€“ “Practice has brought skill through different exercises” (Manilius).
- Bis repetita placent â€“ “The things that please are those that asked for again and again” (Horace).
Principle 20. Continuity of Useful Action
A. Carry on work continuously; make all parts of object or system work at full load, all the time.
- Age quod agis â€“ Do what you do well.
- Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas â€“ “We should learn as long as we may live” (Seneca).
- Usus magister est optimus â€“ Practice makes perfect.
- Difficile est tenere quae acceperis nisi exerceas â€“ “It is difficult to retain what you may have learned unless you should practice it” (Pliny the Younger).
- Assiduus usus uni rei deditus et ingenium et artem saepe vincit â€“ “Constant practice devoted to one subject often outdoes both intelligence and skill” (Cicero).
- Diligentia maximum etiam mediocris ingeni subsidium â€“ “Diligence is a very great help even to a mediocre intelligence” (Seneca).
- Consuetudo altera natura est â€“ Habit is second nature.
- Consuetudo pro lege servatur â€“ Habit is held as law.
- Consuetudinis vis magna est â€“ The power of habit is great.
- Fortitudine vincimus â€“ By endurance we conquer.
- Facilius est multa facere quam diu â€“ “It is easier to do many things than to do one for a long time” (Quintilian).
- Gutta cavat lapidem non vi, sed saepe cadendo â€“ “A drop drills the rock – not with force but by falling repeatedly” (Ovid). Endurance can overcome an obstacle even without force.
- Gutta cavat lapidem non bis, sed saepe cadendo; sic homo fit sapiens non bis, sed saepe legendo â€“ “A drop drills a rock by falling not twice, but many times; so too is a human made smart by reading not two, but many books” (Giordano Bruno).
- Amicitiae nostrae memoriam spero sempiternam fore â€“ “I hope that the memory of our friendship will be everlasting” (Cicero).
- Quia natura mutari non potest idcirco verae amicitiae sempiternae sunt â€“ “Since nature cannot change, true friendships are eternal” (Horace).
- Exegi monumentum aere perennius â€“ “I have built a monument more durable than bronze” (Horace).
- Non omnis moriar â€“ “Not all of me will die” (Horace).
- Via trita, via tuta â€“ The well-worn road is the most secure.
- Non est vivere sed valere vita est â€“ “Life is not being alive but being well” (Martial).
- Non uno die Roma aedificata est â€“ Rome was not built in one day.
- Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam â€“ “Therefore, I conclude that Carthage must be destroyed” (Cato the Elder). Cato used to end every speech to the Senate, on any subject whatsoever, with this phrase.
E. Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work.
- Natura non facit saltum â€“ “Nature makes no leaps” (Maximus Tyrius). The development of nature is gradual.
- Null dies sine linea â€“ “No day without a line” (Apelles). Do something every day!
- Diem perdidi â€“ “I have lost a day” (Titus). Another day wasted.
- Vitanda est improba siren desidia â€“ “One must avoid that wicked temptress, Laziness” (Horace).
Principle 20 Inverted. Continuity of Harmful Action
- Abyssus abyssum invocat â€“ Abyss invokes abyss. Hell leads to hell. One misstep leads to another.
- Avarus animus nullo satiatur lucro â€“ A greedy mind is satisfied with no gain.
- Avarus eget semper â€“ Avarice is never satisfied.
- Crescit amor nummi, quantum ipsa pecunia crevit â€“ “The love of wealth grows as the wealth itself grew” (Juvenal).
- Qui multum habet, plus cupit â€“ “He who has much desires more” (Seneca).
- Bis peccare in bello non licet â€“ One must not blunder twice in war.
- Errare humanum est. Perseverare diabolicum â€“ “To err is human. To repeat error is of the Devil” (Seneca). It is human to make mistake, it is stupid to persist in it.
- Cuiusvis hominis est errare; nullius nisi insipientis in errore perseverare â€“ Any man can make a mistake; only a fool keeps making the same one.
- Nemo repente fuit turpissimus â€“ “No one ever became thoroughly bad in one step” (Juvenal).
- Proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris â€“ “A special feature of human intelligence is to hate one’s victim” (Tacitus).
- Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum â€“ “So potent was religion in persuading to evil deeds” (Lucretius).
Principle 21. Skipping (Quickness, Decisiveness)
A. Conduct a process, or certain stages (e.g. destructible, harmful or hazardous operations) at high speed.
- Alea iacta est â€“ “The die is cast!” (Caesar). Said by Julius Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon, contrary to law.
- Veni, vidi, vici â€“ “I came, I saw, I triumphed” (Caesar). Julius Caesar sent a message to the Roman senate which consisted only of these three words. It referred to his campaign against the King of Pontus Pharnakles near Zela in 47 BC.
- Bis dat, qui cito dat â€“ “He who gives quickly gives twice” (Publilius Syrus).
- Carpe diem quam minimum credula postero â€“ “Seize the day, trust as little as possible in tomorrow” (Horace).
- Fac et excusa â€“ Act and make excuses later.
- Periculum in mora â€“ “Danger in delay” (Livy).
- Tarditas et procrastinatio odiosa est â€“ “Delay and procrastination are hateful” (Cicero).
- Tarde venientibus ossa â€“ For those who come late, only the bones.
Principle 21 Inverted. Slowing (Delay)
- Festina lente! â€“ “Make haste slowly!” (Motto of Octavian Augustus). Proceed quickly but with caution.
- Tarde sed tute â€“ Slowly but securely.
- Potius sero quam numquam â€“ “Better late then never” (Livy).
- Quod differtur, non aufertur â€“ “That which is postponed is not dropped” (Sir Thomas More). The inevitable is yet to happen.
Principle 22. “Blessing in Disguise” (Convert Harm into Benefit, Find Good in Bad)
A. Use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect.
- Amantium irae amoris integration est â€“ “The quarrels of lovers are the renewal of love” (Terence).
- Amici probantur rebus adversis â€“ “Friends are proved by adversity” (Cicero).
- Amicus certus in re incerta cernitur â€“ A true friend is discerned during an uncertain matter. Friend in need is the friend indeed.
- Brevis ipsa vita est sed malis fit longior â€“ “Our life is short but is made longer by misfortunes” (Publilius Syrus).
- Nihil est miserum nisi cum putes â€“ “Nothing is unfortunate if you don’t consider it unfortunate” (Boethius).
- Commune periculum concordiam parit â€“ Common danger brings forth harmony.
- Commune naufragium dulce â€“ A common shipwreck is sweet. Common traumas feel good and connect people.
- Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori â€“ “It is sweet and honorable to die for the fatherland” (Horace).
- Crescit sub pondere virtus â€“ Virtue increases under ever oppression.
- Dulcius ex asperis â€“ Through difficulty, sweetness.
- Per ardua ad astra or Per aspera ad astra â€“ Through hardship to the stars.
- Non est ad astra mollis e terris via â€“ “There is no easy way from the earth to the stars” (Seneca).
- Amat victoria curam â€“ Victory favors those who take pains.
- Dura lex, sed lex â€“ The law is harsh, but it is the law.
- Quae nocent, saepe docent â€“ What hurts, often instructs. One learns by adverse experience.
- Est queadam fiere voluptas â€“ “There is a certain pleasure in weeping” (Ovid).
- Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas â€“ “Although the power is lacking, the will is commendable” (Ovid).
- Forsan miseros meliora sequentur â€“ For those in misery perhaps better things will follow.
- Beati pauperes spiritu â€“ “Blessed are the poor in spirit” (Vulgate Bible).
- Iniqua nunquam regna perpetuo manent â€“ “Stern masters do not reign long” (Seneca).
- Malum quidem nullum esse sine aliquo bono â€“ “There is, to be sure, no evil without something good” (Pliny the Elder).
- Nullus est liber tam malus ut non aliqua parte prosit â€“ “There is no book so bad that it is not profitable on some part” (Pliny the Younger).
- Saepe creat molles aspera spina rosas â€“ “Often the prickly thorn produces tender roses” (Ovid).
- Fas est et ab hoste doceri â€“ “It’s proper to learn even from an enemy” (Ovid).
- Abusus non tollit usum â€“ Wrong use does not preclude proper use.
- Mater artium necessitas â€“ “Necessity is the mother of invention” (Appuleius).
- Paupertas omnium artium repertrix â€“ “Poverty is the inventor of all the arts”.
- Magister artis ingeniique largitor venter â€“ “The belly is the teacher of art and bestower of genius” (Persius).
B. Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem.
- Durum durum destruit â€“ Hard is destroyed by hard.
- Contraria contrariis curantur â€“ “Opposites are cured by their opposites” (Hippocrates).
- Litem lite resolvere â€“ To settle strife by strife. To end one controversy by another.
- Medici graviores morbos asperis remediis curant â€“ “Doctors cure the more serious diseases with harsh remedies” (Curtius Rufus).
- Tertius gaudens â€“ Third enjoyed. The third party that benefits from struggle between other two.
C. Amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful.
- Perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim â€“ “Be patient and tough; one day this pain will be useful to you” (Ovid).
Principle 22 Inverted. “Cursing in Disguise” (Aware of Bad in Good)
- Graviora manent â€“ Greater afflictions are in store. The worst is yet to come.
- Facilis descensus Averno â€“ “Easy is the descent to Avernus” (Virgil). The descent to hell is easy. It is easy enough to get into trouble.
- Occasio aegre offertur, facile amittitur â€“ “Opportunity is offered with difficulty, lost with ease” (Publilius Syrus).
- Ad nocendum patentes sumus â€“ “We all have power to do harm” (Seneca).
- Aegrescit medendo â€“ “Disease worsens with treatment” (Virgil).
- Graviora quaedam sunt remedia periculis â€“ Some remedies are worse than the disease.
- Crudelius est quam mori semper timere mortem â€“ “It is more cruel to always fear death than to die” (Seneca).
- Veritas odium paret â€“ “Truth creates hatred” (Terence).
- Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges â€“ “The greater the degeneration of the kingdom, the more of its laws” (Tacitus).
- Summum ius summa inuria â€“ “More law, less justice” (Cicero).
- Corruptio optimi pessima â€“ Corruption of the best is worst.
- Dulce bellum inexpertis â€“ “War is sweet for those who haven’t experienced it” (Pindaros).
- Mars gravior sub pace latet â€“ A more serious warfare is concealed by seeming peace.
- Ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant â€“ “Where they make desolation, they call it peace” (Tacitus).
- Saepe ne utile quidem est scire quid futurum sit â€“ “Often it is not even advantageous to know the future” (Cicero).
- Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere â€“ “To accept a favor is to sell freedom” (Publilius Syrus).
- Qui nimium probat, nihil probat â€“ He who proves too much, proves nothing.
- Inopem copia fecit â€“ Abundance has made him poor.
- Probitas laudatur et alget â€“ “Honesty is praised and left in the cold” (Juvenal).
- Quem di diligunt, adulescens moritur â€“ “Whom the gods love dies young” (Plautus).
- Quod me nutrit me destruit â€“ What nourishes me destroys me.
- Bibere venenum in auro â€“ Drink poison from a cup of gold.
- Fallaces sunt rerum species â€“ “The appearances of things are deceptive” (Seneca).
- Non omne quod nitet aurum est â€“ Not everything that glitters is gold.
- Non teneas aurum totum quod splendet ut aurum â€“ Do not take as gold everything that shines like gold.
- Non omne quod nitet aurum est â€“ Not everything that shines is gold. Not everything that looks beautiful is good.
- Proicis margaritas ante porcos â€“ To cast pearls in front of pigs. To give something valuable to someone not respecting it.
- Si uno adhuc proelio Romanos vincemus, funditus peribimus! â€“ “Another victory like that, and I’m done for!” (Plutarch, Pirrus).
- Pessimum genus inimicorum laudantes â€“ “Flatterers are the worst type of enemies” (Publilius Syrus).
- Pessimus inimicorum genus, laudantes â€“ “The worst kind of enemies, those who can praise” (Tacitus).
- Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes â€“ “I fear the Greeks, even when they bring gifts” (Virgil). These were the last words of prophet Laocoon, warning the Trojans about the present of the Trojan Horse.
Principle 23. Feedback
A. Introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve action, process or system.
- A posteriori â€“ From what comes after. Inductive reasoning.
- Felix qui potuit rerum cognescere causas â€“ “Happy is the one who can learn the causes of things” (Virgil).
- Vestigia terrent â€“ “The traces deter” (Horace). Refers to the old fable of the wolf who refused an offer to enter the lion’s den as he saw many traces leading into it, but none out.
B. If feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence.
- Unum castigabis, centum emendabis â€“ If you reprove one error, you will correct a hundred.
Principle 23 Inverted. Feed-forward (Forecasting)
- A priori â€“ From what comes before. Deductive reasoning.
- Historia est vitae magistra â€“ History is the tutor of life.
- Ab actu ad posse valet illatio â€“ From the past one can infer the future.
- Agenda â€“ Things to be done.
- Flamma fumo est proxima â€“ “Flame follows smoke” (Plautus).
- Ubi fumus, ibi ignis â€“ Where there’s smoke, there’s fire.
- Eventus stultorum magister â€“ Events are the teacher of stupid persons. Stupid people learn by experience, bright people calculate what to do.
- Stultum est timere quod vitare non potes â€“ “It is foolish to fear that which you cannot avoid” (Publilius Syrus).
- Nihil admirari cum acciderit, nihil ante quam evenerit, non evenire posse arbitrary â€“ “Don’t wonder at anything that has already happened. And anything that has not happened yet, don’t judge as impossible” (Cicero).
Principle 24. Intermediary
A. Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process.
B. Merge one object or system temporarily with another (which can be easily removed).
- Amicus curiae â€“ Friend of the court. An adviser or a person who can obtain or grant access to the favor of powerful people.
- Locum tenens â€“ One occupying the place. Deputy.
Principle 25. Self-Service (Self-Organization)
A. Make object or system serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions.
- Faber est suae quisque fortunae â€“ “Each man is the maker of his own fortune” (Appius Claudius Caecus).
- Spes sibi quisque â€“ Let each man’s hope be in himself. Let him trust to his own resources.
- Bis vincit qui se vincit in victoria â€“ “He conquers twice who in the hour of conquest conquers himself” (Publilius Syrus).
- Bis interimitur qui suis armis perit â€“ He is doubly destroyed who perishes by his own arms” (Publilius Syrus).
- Omnia mea mecum porto â€“ “All that’s mine I carry with me” (Ovid). My wisdom is my greatest wealth.
- Proximus sum egomet mihi â€“ “I am closest to myself” (Terence).
- Suum cuique pulchrum est â€“ “To each his own is beautiful” (Cicero).
- Quam se ipse amans-sine rivali! â€“ “Himself loving himself so much â€“ without a rival!” (Cicero).
- Medice, cura te ipsum! â€“ “Doctor, heal thyself” (Versio Vulgata).
- Nosce te ipsum â€“ “Know thyself” (Inscription at the temple of Apollo in Delphi).
- Et ipsa scientia potestas est â€“ “And knowledge itself, is power” (Francis Bacon).
- Quidquid discis, tibi discis â€“ Whatever you learn, you learn it for yourself.
- Homines, dum docent, discunt â€“ “Men learn while they teach” (Seneca).
- Docendo discimus â€“ We learn by teaching.
- Intelligo me intelligere â€“ “I understand that I understand” (St. Augustine).
- Amoris vulnis idem sanat qui facit â€“ Wounds of love are cured by love itself.
- Nemo risum praebuit, qui ex se coepit â€“ “Nobody is laughed at, who laughs at himself” (Seneca).
- Res ipsa loquitur â€“ The thing speaks for itself.
- Ipsa quidem pretium virtus sibi â€“ Virtue is its own reward.
- Ars gratia artis â€“ Art for art’s sake. Art has its own sense.
B. Use waste resources, energy, or substances.
- In silvam ne ligna feras â€“ “Don’t carry logs into the forest” (Horace).
Principle 25 Inverted. Outward Directed Action
- Non ignara mals, miseris succurrere disco â€“ Not unacquainted with misfortune, I learn to assist the wretched.
Principle 26. Copying
A. Instead of unavailable, expensive, fragile object or system, use simpler and inexpensive copies.
- Alter ego â€“ “Another I” (Zeno). Soul mate, close friend.
- Alter ipse amicus â€“ A friend is another self.
- Tamquam alter idem â€“ “As if a second self” (Cicero).
B. Replace object or system, or process with optical copy or image. A scale can be used to reduce or enlarge image.
- Imago dei or Imitatio dei â€“ In imitation of God. A principle held by several religions, that believers should strive to resemble their god(s).
- In effigie â€“ In an image. As opposed to “in the flesh” or “in person.”
- Labra lege â€“ Read my lips.
- Materiam superabat opus â€“ “The workmanship was better than the subject matter” (Ovid).
C. If visible optical copies are already used, move to infrared or ultraviolet copies. Look at things in another light.
- Inter caecos regnat strabo â€“ “Among blinds the squinting rules” (Erasmus).
- Mendacem oportet esse memorem â€“ “A liar must have a good memory” (Quintilian).
- Coniecturalem artem esse medicinam â€“ “Medicine is the art of guessing” (Aulus Cornelius Celsus).
- Non mortem timemus, sed cogitationem mortis â€“ “We do not fear death, but the thought of death” (Seneca).
Principle 26 Inverted. Original, Source
- Natura, artis magistra â€“ Nature, the mistress of art.
- Ad fontes â€“ “To the sources” (Motto of Renaissance Humanism).
- Astra non mentiuntur, sed astrologi bene mentiuntur de astris â€“ The stars never lie, but the astrologers lie about the stars.
- Facta, non verba! â€“ Deeds, not words!
- Verba docent, exempla trahunt â€“ Words instruct, examples lead. Deeds, not words, give the example.
- Orator fit, poeta nascitur â€“ The orator is made, the poet is born.
Principle 27. Cheap Short-Living Objects
A. Replace expensive object or system with a multiple of inexpensive objects or systems, compromising certain qualities (such as service life, for instance).
- Noli equi dentes inspicere donati â€“ “Do not look a gift horse in the mouth” (St. Jerome).
- Fiat experimentum in corpore vili â€“ Let the experiment be made on a body of no value.
Principle 28. Mechanics Substitution with Fields (Natural Phenomena)
A. Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste or smell) means.
B. Use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with object or system. Replace mechanical devices with physical fields.
C. Change from static to movable fields, from unstructured fields to those having structure.
D. Use fields in conjunction with field-activated (e.g., ferromagnetic) particles.
E. Use natural phenomena.
- Quod natura non sunt turpia â€“ What is natural cannot be bad.
- Natura nihil fit in frustra â€“ Nature does nothing in vain.
- Numquam aliud natura, aliud sapientia dicit â€“ Never does nature say one thing and wisdom say another.
- Medicus curat, natura sanat â€“ The doctor treats, nature heals.
- Probae esti in segetem sunt deteriorem datae fruges, tamen ipsae suaptae enitent â€“ “A good seed, planted even in poor soil, will bear rich fruit by its own nature” (Lucius Accius).
Principle 29. Pneumatics and Hydraulics (Air and Water Allegories)
A. Use gas and liquid parts of object or system instead of solid parts (e.g., inflatable, filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive).
- Naturo abhorret a vacuo â€“ Nature abhors a vacuum.
- In aere aedificare â€“ “Build (castles) in the air” (St. Augustine).
- Altissima quaeque flumina minimo sono labi â€“ The deepest rivers flow with the least sound. Still waters run deep.
- Rumores Volant â€“ Rumors fly.
- Ventis secundis, tene cursum â€“ Go with the flow.
Principle 30. Flexible Shells and Thin Films
A. Use flexible shells and thin films instead of three-dimensional structures.
B. Isolate object or system from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films.
- Amor tussisque non celantur â€“ “Love and cough are not concealed” (Ovid).
- Nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet â€“ It is your concern when your neighbor’s wall is on fire.
Principle 31. Porous Materials
A. Make object or system porous or add porous elements (inserts, coatings, etc.).
B. If object or system is already porous, use the pores to introduce a useful substance or function.
- Cribro aquam haurimus â€“ To pull out water by a sieve.
Principle 32. Color or Transparency Change
A. Change color of an object or system or its external environment.
B. Change the transparency of object or system or its external environment.
C. In order to improve observability of things that are difficult to see, use colored additives or luminescent elements.
D. Change the emissivity properties of an object subject to radiant heating.
- Obscuris vera involvens â€“ “Obscurity envelops truth” (Virgil).
- Clarior e tenebris â€“ Brighter from darkness.
- Clara pacta, boni amici â€“ Clear agreements, good friends.
- Creta an carbone notandum â€“ To be marked with chalk or charcoal. The Romans marked lucky days with white and unlucky days with black.
Principle 33. Homogeneity (Similarity)
A. Make objects or systems interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties).
- Dum inter homines sumus, colamus humanitatem â€“ “As long as we are among humans, let us be humane” (Seneca).
- Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto â€“ “I am human, so nothing that is human is foreign to me” (Terence).
- Uva uvam videndo varia fit â€“ “A grape changes color in seeing another grape” (Juvenal).
- Similia similibus curantur â€“ Like things are cured by like. The principle of homeopathy.
- Nummus nummum parit â€“ Coin produces coin.
- Ferrum ferro acuitur â€“ Iron sharpens iron.
- Architectum architecto invidet et poetam poetae â€“ Architect envies to architect, and poet to poet.
- Asinus asinum fricat â€“ The donkey scratches the donkey. Stupid and conceited people flatter each other about qualities they do not possess.
- Asinus asino pulcherrimus â€“ The donkey to donkey is the most beautiful.
- Corvus oculum corvi non eruet or Cornix cornici oculos non effodiet â€“ The raven to raven will not tear out the eye.
- Ulula cum lupis, cum quibus esse cupis â€“ Who keeps company with wolves, will learn to howl.
- Caeci caecos ducentes â€“ Blind are led by the blind. Leaders are not more knowledgeable than the ones they lead.
- E fructu arbor cognoscitur â€“ The tree can be recognized by its fruits.
- Qualis pater talis filius â€“ As is the father, so is the son.
- Noscitur e sociis â€“ A man is known by the company he keeps.
- Simili gaudet simili â€“ Like loves like.
- Omnia munda mundis â€“ Everything is pure to pure ones.
- Idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est â€“ “Desiring the same things and disliking the same things, that is what true friendship is” (Catalina Sallustius).
Principle 33 Inverted. Heterogeneity
- Homo homini lupus est â€“ “Man is a wolf to man” (Plautus).
- Omne simile est dissimile â€“ Every like is unlike. If there were not unlikeness there would be identity.
- Duo cum faciunt idem, non est idem â€“ “When two do the same, it isn’t the same” (Terence).
- Bella omnium contra omnes â€“ “The war of all against all” (Thomas Hobbes).
Principle 34. Discarding and Recovering
A. Make portions of object or system that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) or modify these directly during operation.
B. Conversely, restore consumable parts of object or system directly in operation.
- Restitutio in integrum â€“ Restitution in integrity.
Principle 35. Parameter or Property Change
A. Change object or system physical state (e.g., to a gas, liquid, or solid).
B. Change the concentration or consistency.
C. Change the degree of flexibility.
D. Change the temperature.
E. Change the pressure.
F. Change other parameters.
- Cibi condimentum est fames â€“ Hunger is a spice for any meal.
- Flecti, non frangi â€“ To be bent, not broken.
- In vino veritas â€“ The truth is in wine. A drunk person tells the truth.
- Bonum vinum laetificat cor hominis â€“ Good wine gladdens a human heart.
- Nemo saltat sobrius â€“ No man dances sober.
- Post cenam non stare sed mille passus meare â€“ Do not rest after dinner, but walk a mile.
Principle 36. Phase Transition (Life Metamorphoses)
A. Use phenomena occurring during phase transition (e.g., volume changes, loss or absorption of heat, etc.).
- Memento mori â€“ Remember, you will die.
- Respice post te, mortalem te esse memento â€“ “Look around you, remember that you are mortal” (Tertullian).
- Hodie mihi, cras tibi â€“ “It is my lot today, yours to-morrow” (Old epitaphs).
- Stat sua cuique dies â€“ “The date is set for each and everyone” (Virgil).
- Mors ultima linea rerum est â€“ “Death is everything’s final limit” (Horace).
- Pulvis et umbra sumus â€“ “We are but dust and shadow” (Horace).
- Sic transit gloria mundi â€“ “Thus perishes the glory of the world” (Thomas A.Kempis).
- Nascentes morimur â€“ From the moment we are born, we begin to die.
- Nemo ante mortem beatus â€“ Nobody is blessed before his death.
- Cineri gloria sera venit â€“ Fame comes too late to the dead.
- Extinctus amabitur idem â€“ “The same man will be loved when he is dead” (Horace).
- Omnia mutantur; nihil interit â€“ “All things are changed; nothing dies” (Ovid).
- Bis vivit qui bene vivit â€“ He lives twice who lives well.
- Cras amet qui nunquam amavit â€“ May he love tomorrow who has never loved before.
- Ars longa, vita brevis â€“ “Art is long, but life is short” (The Latin translation by Horace of a phrase from Hippocrates).
- Inter arma enim silent Musae â€“ “During wars arts are silent” (Cicero).
- Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos; tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris â€“ “As long as you are lucky, you will have many friends; if cloudy times appear, you will be alone” (Ovid).
- Ad praesens ova cras pullis sunt meliora â€“ Eggs today are better than chickens tomorrow.
Principle 37. Thermal Expansion (Fervor, Passion)
A. Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials.
B. If thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.
- Igne natura renovatur integra (INRI) â€“ “Through fire nature is reborn whole” (An alchemical aphorism).
- Igni et ferro â€“ By fire and sward.
- Parva scintilla saepe magnam flamam excitat â€“ A small spark often initiates a large flame.
- In flagrante delicto â€“ In flaming crime. Caught red-handed.
- Pro aris et focis â€“ “For altar and hearth” (Cicero). For our homes.
- Ab imo pectore â€“ “From the depths of my chest” (Attributed to Julius Caesar). From my heart.
- Ex abundancia cordis, os loquitor â€“ From the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks.
- Amor ordinem nescit â€“ “Love does not know order” (St. Jerome).
- Amantes sunt amentes â€“ Lovers are lunatics.
- Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur â€“ Even a god finds it hard to love and be wise at the same time.
- Omnia vincit amor, nos et cedamus amori â€“ “Love conquers all, let us too yield to love” (Virgil).
- Gaudeamus igitur iuvenes dum sumus â€“ “Thus let us enjoy ourselves as long as we are young” (From an old German student’s song).
Principle 38. Strong Oxidants (Inspiration, Enthusiasm)
A. Replace common air with oxygen-enriched air.
B. Replace enriched air with pure oxygen.
C. Expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation.
D. Use ionized oxygen.
E. Replace ozonized (or ionized) oxygen with ozone.
F. Insert an active ingredient.
- Ad maiorem dei gloriam (AMDG) â€“ For the greater glory of God.
- Ave Caesar! Morituri te salutamus â€“ “Hail Caesar! We who are about to die salute you” (Gladiators before the fight).
- Cogito, ergo sum â€“ “I think; therefore I am” (Rene Descartes).
- Dum spiro, spero â€“ “As long as I breathe, I hope” (Cicero).
- Credula vitam spes fovet et melius cras fore semper dicit â€“ “Credulous hope supports our life, and always says that tomorrow will be better” (Tibullus).
- Auribus tenere lupum â€“ “I hold a wolf by the ears” (Terence). I am in a dangerous situation and dare not let go.
- Nil desperandum! â€“ “Never despair!” (Horace).
- Luctor et emergo â€“ I struggle but I will survive.
- Ne cede malis, seal contra audentior ito â€“ Do not yield to misfortunes, on the contrary, go more boldly to meet them.
- In vinculis etiam audax â€“ In chains yet still bold (free).
- Ad hominem â€“ Appealing to feelings rather than reason.
- Animus facit nobilem â€“ The spirit makes (human) noble.
- Crede quod habes, et habes â€“ Believe that you have it, and you have it.
- In magnis et voluisse sat est â€“ “To once have wanted is enough in great deeds” (Propertius).
- Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis â€“ “Unless you will have believed, you will not understand” (St. Augustine).
- Trahimur omnes laudis studio â€“ “We are all drawn by our eagerness for praise” (Cicero).
Principle 39. Inert Environment (Neutrality, Indifference)
A. Replace a normal environment with an inert one.
B. Add neutral parts, or inert additives to object or system.
- Nec habeo, nec careo, nec curo â€“ Not have, not lack, not care.
- Sine ira et studio â€“ “Without anger or bias” (Tacitus).
- Audi, vide, tace, si tu vis vivere â€“ Hear, see, be silent, if you wish to be alive.
- Bene qui latuit, bene vixit â€“ “He who lives unnoticed lives well” (Ovid).
- Qui tacet, consentire videtur â€“ Who is silent seems to agree.
- Favete linguis â€“ “Keep quiet” (Horace).
- Si tacuisses, philosophus mansisses â€“ “If you had kept your silence, you would have stayed a philosopher” (Boethius).
- Nil admirari â€“ “To not admire anything” (Horace). You shouldn’t let yourself be taken away by anything.
- Aequam memento rebus in arduis servare mentem â€“ “In adversity, remember to keep an even mind” (Horace).
- Cuivis dolori remedium est patientia â€“ Patience is the cure for all suffering.
- Gloriosum est iniurias oblivisci â€“ It is glorious to forget injustice.
- Qui dormit non peccet â€“ He who sleeps does not sin.
- Pax melior est quam iustissimum bellum â€“ Peace is better than the most just war.
- Bella gerant alii â€“ Let others wage war.
- Vix ulla tam iniqua pax, quin bello vel aequissimo sit potior â€“ “Scarcely is there any peace so unjust that it is not better than even the fairest war” (Erasmus).
Principle 40. Composite Structures (“Renaissance People”)
A. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.
- Mens sana in corpore sano â€“ “A sound mind in a sound body” (Juvenal). Both physical and mental health are necessary.
- Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci â€“ “He has gained every point who has combined the useful and the agreeable” (Orazio).
- Rara mistura cum sapientia forma â€“ The combination of beauty and wisdom is infrequent.
- Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re â€“ Gentle in manner, resolute in deed.
- Panem et circenses â€“ “Bread and circus games” (Juvenal). Food and games to keep people happy.
- Inventas vitam iuvat excoluisse per artes â€“ “Let us improve life through science and art” (Virgil).
- Tate, Karen and Domb, Ellen, 40 Inventive Principles with Examples, The TRIZ Journal, July 1997.
- Williams, Todd and Domb, Ellen, Reversibility of the 40 Principles of Problem Solving, The TRIZ Journal, May 1998.
- Mann, Darrell and Domb, Ellen, 40 Inventive (Business) Principles with Examples, The TRIZ Journal, September 1999.
- Terninko, John, 40 Inventive Principles with Social Examples, The TRIZ Journal, June 2001.
- Retseptor, Gennady, 40 Inventive Principles in Quality Management, The TRIZ Journal, March 2003.
- Retseptor, Gennady, 40 Inventive Principles in Marketing, Sales and Advertising, The TRIZ Journal, April 2005.
- Retseptor, Gennady, 40 Inventive Principles in Customer Satisfaction Enhancement, The TRIZ Journal, January 2007.
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About the Author:
Gennady Retseptor is a quality manager of AVX Israel Ltd, the Thin Film Operation Plant of AVX Corporation, Kyocera Group Company. He received a masters degree with honors in Microelectronics from the Moscow Steel and Alloys University. Gennady Retseptor is an ASQ Certified Quality Manager since 1999. Contact Gennady Retseptor at gennadyr (at) avx.co.il.
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